It Wasn’t Easy Being Green: Irish Artifacts from the Boott Mill

Growing up in Massachusetts, I was well aware of my frequently mentioned–though quite distant—Irish heritage.  My grandfather, Eddie McInerny, was my link to my Irish legacy, and it was a big source of pride in my family.  Like many Bostonians, I view St. Patrick’s Day is a major holiday and have fond memories of going to the Boston St. Patrick’s Day parade as a young child.  You can imagine my excitement after finding two possible Irish-American artifacts in the Boott Mill Boarding House collection from Lowell National Historical Park (LOWE).

The Irish began immigrating to America in large numbers during the 1840’s, but had been coming in lesser numbers for well over a hundred years due to earlier famines and disease outbreaks.  Historians cite many reasons for the sudden jump in immigration, but the major reason for the mid-nineteenth-century boom was the great potato famine, which began in 1845 and ended around 1852.  Because of the famine, approximately 1 million people emigrated from Ireland to America and a handful of other countries including England, Canada, and Australia.

When Irish immigrants got to America, they needed jobs.  Their arrival coincided with the opening of textile mills in the Northeast.  The Lowell Boott Mill opened in 1835 and was one of the major opportunities for newly arriving immigrants.  While we were cataloging the Lowell Boott Mill Boarding House archeology collection, we came across two artifacts that could have belonged to Irish immigrants who worked in the mill and lived at the boarding house.  The first one is a glass button with a painted green four-leaf clover on it.


Glass button with painted four-leaf-clover motif from LOWE archeology collection. NMSC photo.

The three-leaf clover, or shamrock, is for many the symbol of Ireland.  The link between the shamrock and Ireland goes back to St. Patrick when the three leaves were linked to the Holy Trinity.  The three leaves are also said to represent faith, hope, and love.  The word “shamrock” comes from an Irish word, seamróg, which is the diminutive form of “summer plant,” and refers specifically to a three-leaf clover.  Joseph Piercy elaborates in his book “Symbols: A Universal Language,” that the four-leaf clover is not the same thing as a shamrock, but that it is seen as a symbol of good luck in Ireland. Wearing or using an artifact with a three- or four-leaf clover could have meant many things for the wearer.

The second artifact has shamrocks on it, the symbol of Ireland.  The clay pipe reads “Erin” on one side and …“One” on the other.  Unlike the glass button, we can definitively link this object to Ireland.  Aside from having Ireland’s symbol the shamrock on it, the pipe mentions “Erin,” which is the word for Ireland in the Irish language.


Clay pipe from LOWE archeology collection. “ERIN” and shamrock motif stamped onto bowl. Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC.

In the NMSC archeology lab, we encounter clay pipes–both bowl fragments and stem fragments–frequently.  The majority of these clay pipe fragments are undecorated, but every once in a while, we come across a unique pipe that can give us information about the person who bought and used it.  (If you follow our blog, perhaps you remember a previous post about a very special Pipe With Personality!)  The pipe from the Lowell Boott Mill shows the user’s link to Ireland.  Native Bostonians in the 1840s were largely of English descent.  As a group they did not particularly welcome the tens of thousands of Irish arriving and seeking jobs and shelter.  The “Erin” pipe from the Boott Mill may have represented Irish pride and resolve in a time of anti-Irish sentiment.

As a museum technician in the NMSC Archeology Lab, I am lucky to see thousands of artifacts from many wonderful sites in the Northeast Region of the National Park Service.  Sometimes, it is nice to take a step back and focus on one or two objects in a collection and think about the people they may represent.  In this case, perhaps the “Erin” clay pipe was used by a proud Irishman who wished to proclaim his native culture in a time of discrimination.  Perhaps the four-leaf-clover button was worn by a young Irish woman seeking good fortune amidst the opportunities of this industrial city.  We cannot know for certain the stories represented by these two artifacts, but the possibilities are what make my job exciting.  Through objects, we get a chance to learn about people from the past who may not make it into our history books, and this is exactly what these two objects do for me.

From everyone here at NMSC, we wish you a Happy St. Patrick’s Day!


Ayto, Eric G.  Clay Tobacco Pipes.  Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, UK: Shire Publications Ltd, 2002.

Mrozowski, Stephen A., Grace H. Ziesing, and Mary C. Beaudry.  Living on the Boott: Historical Archaeology at the Boott Mills Boardinghouses, Lowell, Massachusetts.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996.

Piercy, Joseph.  Symbols; A Universal Language.  Published by Michael O’Mara , 2013.

Wisniewski, Debra J.  Antique & Collectible Buttons: Identification & Values.  Paducah, KY: Collector Books, 1997.

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments

I Left My Heart in a National Park: NPS Sites We Love

“I love that place!”  Chances are, you’ve heard that phrase – and used it yourself – numerous times.  What makes us love certain places?  Do we feel a personal connection to the history of a place?  Do we find inspiration or serenity in a particular landscape?  Or is it something indescribable, something we can’t put into words, but just feel?  Here at the Northeast Museum Services Center, we are privileged to work with national parks across the Northeast Region that vary significantly in terms of place.  We work on-site at historic rowhouses in urban settings, quiet farmhouses in the countryside, and grand Victorian mansions with formal gardens.  In honor of Valentine’s Day, allow us to share with you some of parks we love, and why. 

Sara Wolf, Director – Weir Farm National Historic Site

My father was an artist — a painter.  I remember spending many happy hours in his studio as a child creating exuberant messes in the name of art.  Walking into the Weir studio with its remnants of the smells of oil paints and turpentine instantly transports me back to that time and fills me with joy.  And that is why I love Weir Farm National Historic Site.

Weir Farm National Historic Site.  (Image source:  Weir Farm National Historic Site website -

Weir Farm National Historic Site. (Image source: Weir Farm National Historic Site website –

Laurel Racine, Senior Curator – Shenandoah National Park

I have loved Shenandoah National Park since I was a kid.  My family’s road trips focused heavily on the highways of the East Coast with relatives’ houses at the end of each drive.  It was such a relief when my parents would get off the interstate and drive more slowly under the canopy of trees along Skyline Drive with its tunnels, vistas, stone walls, and visitor centers.  If we were lucky, we would stop at Luray Caverns outside the park with its colorful caves and gift shop only a child could love.  Over the years I have seen the Drive in full leaf and shattered and broken after winter ice storms only to appear rejuvenated the next time I visited.  Nature’s resilience is amazing, if not boundless.

Shenandoah has such romantic place names.  Who wouldn’t want to go to Skyland, Panorama, or Pinnacles?  The stories are intriguing as well:  the early mountain residents, President Hoover and the Secret Service in fishing cabins on the Rapidan River, and the CCC boys building Skyline Drive.

Early in my NPS career I worked on many projects at Shenandoah and came to love it for what I considered its parky-ness:  the fee stations, lodges, campgrounds, stables, trails, and fireside chats.  As I drove on remote fire roads, I would think, “Now this is what it’s like to work for the Park Service.”  I was responding to the immersion in the landscape, the ability to lose myself in the trees while technically working.  When I would make the frequent drives from Dulles to the park, a smile would break across my face every time I saw the Blue Ridge Mountains in the distance.  Virginia is not home but I always had a sense of returning somewhere familiar and special.

Skyline Drive, Shenandoah National Park.  (Image source:  NPS Digital Image Archives/Wikimedia Commons)

Skyline Drive, Shenandoah National Park. (Image source: NPS Digital Image Archives/Wikimedia Commons)

Nikki Estey, Museum Technician – Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site

Having grown up in Massachusetts, I have always been fascinated with local New England history, specifically the Colonial and Early Republic periods.  I can’t get enough Georgian architecture, federal furniture, and eighteenth-century ceramics!  So, it may come as a surprise that my favorite National Park Service site is Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site in Buffalo, New York.  When I first visited, I didn’t know what to expect from the house that was used briefly to swear in our 26th President after the assassination of President McKinley in 1901.  Upon arriving, I saw a beautiful Greek revival home and interactive exhibits that immersed me in the history of the period.  Not only do you learn about the events that took place in Buffalo in September of 1901, you also learn about politics, the fight for equality, economics, popular culture, the formation of the National Parks, and the many accomplishments of Theodore Roosevelt during his presidency.  I learned so much and loved how the interactive exhibits worked with so many different learning styles.   I am looking forward to visiting again in the future!

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.  (Image source:  Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site website -

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site. (Image source: Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site website –

Alicia Paresi, Curator – Thomas Edison National Historical Park

I have had more than one crush on a Victorian house, but I can honestly say that the first time I saw Glenmont, it was love at first site!  Thomas Edison National Historical Park is a spectacular site that contains the laboratories and artifacts that span Edison’s sixty-year career as an inventor, manufacturer, businessman, and private citizen.  But it’s his private home that steals my heart!   The New Jersey estate, known as Glenmont, was purchased by Thomas Edison in 1886 for his new bride Mina Miller.

For me, the glorious architecture, jeweled windows, furniture suites, Persian rugs, and eclectic mix of decorative arts transform this mansion into a cozy home perfect for creating memories with family and friends.   Edison once said that the mansion was “…a great deal too nice for me, but isn’t half nice enough for my little wife.” Now THAT is true romance!

Glenmont in the spring.  (NPS photo courtesy of Thomas Edison National Historical Park website -

Glenmont in the spring. (Image source:  Thomas Edison National Historical Park website –

Jessica Costello, Museum Specialist – Petersburg National Battlefield, City Point Unit

I first visited the City Point Unit of Petersburg National Battlefield almost ten years ago as part of a team writing a Collection Management Plan, and have been in love ever since.  City Point is a peninsula situated at the confluence of the James and Appomattox Rivers in Hopewell, Virginia.  Appomattox Manor, the beautiful home standing there today, was built in 1763 by Richard Eppes.  This site has witnessed thousands of years of activity by Native Americans, as well as the efforts of generations of the Eppes family to build up their plantation and establish themselves as elite members of society.  During the Civil War, Union General Grant established City Point as his headquarters during the Siege of Petersburg, and it transformed into a busy city teeming with soldiers.  The history of this site is rich, fascinating, and monumental in terms of our nation’s past.

What I find so special about City Point is the way it can hold so many amazing, important stories, and yet present such a calming, tranquil, unassuming air.  At Appomattox Manor, I can stand in front of the 18th-century house and look past huge magnolia trees to the two wide rivers coming together down below.  I can walk between the kitchen house, smoke house, and vivid crepe myrtle trees, and literally feel time standing still.  Every time I have been to City Point, I have been invited by the quietude and serenity of the site to relax, breathe deep, and soak in the natural beauty it has to offer and the incredible stories it has to tell.

app manor

Appomattox Manor, City Point, Petersburg National Battlefield. (NMSC photo)

Jennifer McCann, Museum Specialist – Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site

The NPS Northeast Region site I love is Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site. Aside from it’s stunning location in the Hudson River Valley, the Vanderbilt Mansion is an intriguing house with fascinating stories. Designed by McKim, Mead and White, the Mansion was a vacation home for Frederick W. and Louise Vanderbilt at the turn of the 20th century. The Mansion has incredibly beautiful historic furnishings, artwork, and architectural details. If you visit, make sure you check out the drain pipes under the bathroom sinks…no, really! After the Vanderbilts had discontinued using the place, the Secret Service used the Mansion to house agents and staff, due to its proximity to President Franklin Roosevelt’s home, Springwood, just down the road. Roosevelt himself suggested that the house become part of the National Park Service in 1940.

Details of a sink at Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site.  (NMSC photo)

Details of a sink at Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site. (NMSC photo)

Margaret Welch, Archivist – Longfellow House Washington’s Headquarters National Historic Site

Reverend Samuel Longfellow.  (Image source:  Longfellow House and Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site)

Reverend Samuel Longfellow. (Image source: Longfellow House and Washington’s Headquarters National Historic Site)

That moment in which the hero/heroine realizes that he/she has found the “right one” is a highlight of romantic comedies.  I was fortunate enough to have that moment in realizing that I had been hired for the “right” job.  I knew the photographic collection of the Longfellow House Washington’s Headquarters National Historic Site had extraordinary significance and historical integrity when I was hired to catalog it in February 2001.  But I never imagined that I would have a personal connection to its archives.  During a survey with NMSC and Longfellow staff in March of that year, I happened to come across a letter by the Reverend Samuel Longfellow, younger brother of Henry Wadsworth, with the following passage written in the mid 1860s:

I stayed at a pretty place called Curzon’s Mills where [there] is an old fashioned house under fine old trees & on the banks of a little stream bearing       the poetic name the “the Artichoke.”  And when I came away Miss Curzon rowed me up     the river … among the yellow water lilies.

Well, Miss Curzon is one of my ancestors, and my sisters and I now own the “old fashioned house” by the Artichoke River some one hundred and fifty years afterwards.  The “yellow water lilies” (spatterdocks) still bloom on the river in the summer.  And I knew that I had found “my” job.

"Old Fashioned House" by Artichoke River.  Courtesy photo.
“Old Fashioned House” by Artichoke River. Courtesy photo.

Well, there you have it – some of the NPS sites that we have fallen in love with during our years on staff at NMSC.   Theodore Roosevelt, a great champion of our national parks, first visited the Badlands of North Dakota as a young man in 1883.  Theodore Roosevelt National Park was later established there in 1947.  Of his first visit to this desolate, beautiful landscape, Roosevelt said, “and so began the great romance of my life.”  It is our hope that you may find in your national parks a place that you connect with, that inspires you, that you love.  Happy Valentine’s Day from NMSC!

Source for information on Glenmont:

Roosevelt quote found at

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Curator’s Role in Crowd-Pleasing Events, Part 4: Reversing “Bad Habits” in a Positive Way

Have you been busy these last couple of weeks decorating your historic house museum and planning your seasonal event?  We hope that our holiday series has been informative and helpful.  This fourth and final post of the series deals with recognizing and reversing bad habits that may have become ingrained in your holiday preparations. In this post, Patricia West McKay, Curator at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, relates the positive changes she has made to the site’s long-beloved holiday event.  As illustrated in this post, a few changes can make a world of difference for the sake of preservation, and need not lessen visitors’ enjoyment of the festivities.

[The following post written by Patricia West McKay.]

When I arrived in 1998 as the new curator at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site I inherited a rich ahistorical tradition focused in the former president’s nineteenth-century home, Lindenwald, including food, flowers, an illumination of seventy burning candles, and scores of visitors brushing up against the 1840s scenic Zuber wallpaper. This holiday event was long standing and loved by staff and visitors alike so bringing it in line with curatorial best practices presented significant challenges.

We first approached the accuracy of the event by emphasizing its relationship with Van Buren’s December 5 birthday rather than its definition as a “Christmas” event.  This has not altogether eliminated the perception of the event as being related to the holiday period and the Kinderhook Garden Club still tends in this direction, but fortunately the abundant presence of poinsettias at the event has a basis in the history of the site.  Joel Poinsett, Van Buren’s Secretary of War and visitor to Lindenwald is credited with having introduced poinsettias to the United States.  We have added a special theme focus for the event (in 2014 this was the Van Buren grandchildren) to which the garden Club orients their decorations which adds interpretive content and distracts somewhat from the proclivity to a Christmas theme.

Parlor at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site decorated for the holidays.   (Photo by Bill Urbin, courtesy of Martin Van Buren National Historical Park.)

Parlor at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site decorated for the holidays. (Photo by Bill Urbin, courtesy of Martin Van Buren National Historical Park.)

Approaching the more egregious curatorial issues gradually, we first replaced the live flame candles with low-voltage electric candles, which look remarkably real, so the change satisfied those concerned with an authentic appearance. This  had the added benefit of reducing the number of staff and volunteers needed for the event, because with live flame we had to assign a “candle watcher” in every space in addition to the interpreter stationed there. Of course, we flat-out eliminated the use of actual food (from fruit to nuts, literally) as decorative elements. We purchased a stock of good quality reproduction food that we use instead. I designated a line-item in the curatorial budget for purchasing decorations for this event to ensure they are good quality and can be replaced when they look worn. Martin Van Buren NHS is located near Saratoga National Historical Park which holds a “candlelight” open house in October so we are able to share accoutrements between the two parks to stretch our budgets.

Our next step was to move away from the crowded open-house format to a reservations-based event featuring interpreters and volunteers in period costume in order to keep the number of visitors reasonable and well paced. We had worried about complaints but have not received any despite the event being fully booked.  people seem to understand a sold out show.

Costumed interpreter speaking to visitors in the office at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site.  Note the resin inside of the decanter on the desk, which mimics libation inside. (Photo by Bill Urbin, courtesy of Martin Van Buren National Historic Site.)

Costumed interpreter speaking to visitors in the office at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site. Note the electric candles near the back of the room, as well as the solid resin inside of the decanter on the desk, to suggest libation. (Photo by Bill Urbin, courtesy of Martin Van Buren National Historic Site.)

Perhaps the most difficult transition involved improving at least to some extent the historical accuracy of the floral arrangements produced by the Kinderhook Garden Club. At first, our dedicated volunteers mistook staff suggestions related to the historic period for criticism, which was counter-productive, so we took a different tack. We hired a horticultural historian, Ellen McClelland Lesser, to make a presentation on floral arrangements of the period and to serve as an adviser for the garden club. The volunteers  enjoyed the presentation and the subsequent floral arrangements are more in keeping with Martin Van Buren’s era, although this continues to be a struggle.

I admit that even over fifteen years later we have not been fully successful in aligning the December event at Martin Van Buren NHS with historical accuracy and every curatorial best practice, in part due to its immense popularity and the inexorable pull for the event to be construed as a Christmas party. However, we have made great progress and will continue to strive to do so.

To experience a current seasonal event at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, we invite you to enjoy a brief video entitled Lindenwald Winter Celebration!

Series Conclusion

Despite the inherent bustle and fun of the holiday season, museum staff should stay focused on their institution’s mission through careful planning to safeguard the safety of visitors and cultural resources, maintain accuracy and historical integrity in all public programming, and, above all, maintain good communication and humor among staff members and volunteers. We welcome any additional comments, suggestions, or resources you would like to share.  Happy Holidays to you and yours from the Northeast Museum Services Center!

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Curator’s Role in Crowd-Pleasing Events, Part 3: Planning and Logistics

As Christmas approaches quickly (yes, it’s only 4 days away!), the third installment of our holiday decorating blog series offers advice on coordinating the logistics of a seasonal event at your historic house museum.  The Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site has been hosting a Victorian Christmas event for forty years. Many thanks to the site’s curator, Lenora Henson, for the extraordinarily helpful tips presented here!  

[The following blog post written by Lenora M. Henson.]

Site-specific preparations for the installation of holiday displays and related events depend on any number of factors. For example:  how many spaces are involved?  How big are those spaces?  What is being installed?  Are you adding holiday-specific objects from your collection, or installing (non-collection) decorations?  What sort of “prep work” needs to be done prior to installation?  What (if any) collections objects should be moved?  Where will those objects be moved?  Also consider: who is doing the installation (e.g., staff, volunteers, outside groups)?  What sort of assistance or supervision is necessary?  When will the displays and/or decorations be installed?  Will the site be open to visitors during the installation process?  Will any clean-up be necessary in the immediate aftermath of installation?  And, don’t forget the post-holiday piece of the puzzle: when will the displays be removed?  Who will remove them?  Will all or part of the decorations need to be stored for next year?  If so, where?

Your answers to these and other related questions will naturally guide your planning process – from the amount of time you spend, to the partners you involve, to the specific concerns that wake you from a sound sleep at 2 o’clock on the morning of D[ecorating]-Day. The following case study will illustrate how one historic site has addressed some of these issues and point out a number of successful planning strategies.

The Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site preserves the home where Theodore Roosevelt was sworn-in as President in September of 1901. Known by locals in Buffalo, NY, as the “TR Site,” it has hosted an event called “Victorian Christmas” for forty years. In fact, “Victorian Christmas” is the TR Site’s biggest annual fundraiser and is deemed crucial to its financial stability. Integral to the event, and much-loved by the community, are the decorations installed by members of local garden clubs. Each year, more than a dozen areas in and around what was once the home of Ansley and Mary Grace Wilcox are festooned with holiday trimmings.

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site's front hall decorated by the Lancaster Garden Club, 2014.  (Image courtesy of Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.)

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site’s front hall decorated with the help of the Lancaster Garden Club, 2014. (Image courtesy of Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.)

Coordinating the decorating efforts of a dozen or more garden clubs, while at the same time protecting the historic resource, requires considerable planning and cooperation. For the TR Site, the foundation of this process is the long-standing and solid partnership it has developed with the 8th District Federated Garden Clubs of New York State. Two volunteers from the 8th District sit on the TR Site’s Victorian Christmas Committee and are indispensable liaisons between the two groups. These volunteer chairs also provide a first point of contact for individual garden clubs interested in decorating the TR Site.

Planning for Victorian Christmas and decorating generally gets underway in February (yes, ten months in advance of the event!) of any given year. The TR Site’s Assistant Director, who manages the overall event, meets with the 8th District chairs to review successes and challenges from the previous year. As the staff person who works directly with the garden clubs, I am also at this meeting. Together, we finalize the information that will accompany the TR Site’s annual invitation to decorate for Victorian Christmas. This includes a list of rooms and areas to be decorated, a link to an electronic form that records each garden club’s choice, and a set of specific decorating guidelines. The packet of information is distributed to all of the area garden clubs at the 8th District’s annual spring meeting and luncheon. This event is a perfect opportunity to distribute this information, because the Assistant Director and I are on hand to present awards stemming from the previous year’s Victorian Christmas decorations.

Over the course of the next several months, the 8th District chairs work with individual garden clubs to decide which club will decorate each room or area at the TR Site. From my perspective, this works out extremely well since the chairs are familiar with not only the garden clubs, but also the possibilities and limitations of the TR Site. For instance, if two garden clubs have their hearts set on decorating a particular area, the 8th District chairs are much better positioned than I am to negotiate an agreement. Or, if a small garden club, with only a few members and even fewer resources, would like to get involved but is daunted by the pre-defined decorating areas, the 8th District chairs can work with me to divide an area appropriately or find an alternate solution. Generally, by the end of the summer, all of the rooms and areas have been claimed (or assigned, as the case may be) and the 8th District chairs provide me with a list of garden clubs and the areas they are responsible for decorating.

Shortly after Labor Day, I e-mail each participating garden club. There are several components to this mailing and a good deal of the information is repeated from the packet distributed at the 8th District’s spring meeting. While I was initially concerned about giving garden clubs the same information twice, I have come to realize that the first round of information tends to get lost over the summer. With that in mind, the early fall mailing includes a cover letter about scheduling for previews and “Decorating Days”; decorating tips focused on protecting collection objects and floors; the Curator’s Choice Award announcement for the decorations that “best capture the spirit of turn-of-the-century Christmas decorations in Buffalo”; and information on Buffalo Christmas decorations circa 1901.  This last item is excerpted from original research and highlights the wide variety of plant materials (including poinsettias, narcissus, begonias, mistletoe, orchids, lilies, palms, and pine) used to decorate the homes of prominent Buffalonians.

Dining room at Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Monument, decorated with the help of the Smallwood Garden Club, 2014.  Chandelier decorations installed by site curator.  (Image courtesy of Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.)

Dining room at Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Monument, decorated with the help of the Smallwood Garden Club, 2014. Chandelier decorations installed by site curator. (Image courtesy of Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.)

The flurry of phone calls resulting from this mailing leads to in-person, on-site meetings with representatives of the various garden clubs. These “preview” meetings are invaluable. They not only provide the garden club with a chance to see and measure their space, but also allow me to work with them to find solutions to the dilemmas created by the restrictions (no tape, etc.) imposed by the TR Site. I take copious notes to remind myself which (if any) artifacts need to be moved before garden clubs arrive and have found that these meetings make the chaos of Decorating Days more manageable. While some may consider it micro-managing, I have also found it useful to establish myself as the single source of answers when it comes to decorating questions. If I am the only person who can (or will) provide answers, there isn’t much room on Decorating Day for a conversation beginning with the assertion that, “Another staff member told me it would be fine to . . . ”

While it is impossible to anticipate every challenge that will crop up during Decorating Days, experience suggests that it is best to face the process with as much information as possible. Individual clubs are expected to let me know which day and what time they plan to come in. Before Decorating Days even arrive, I can get a sense of how many garden clubs plan to be in a particular area of the house on a given day to alleviate bottle necks in tight spaces.

Armed with my notes from preview meetings and the schedule, I can face Decorating Days with a fair degree of confidence. I can move artifacts, and we can stage work tables as well as ladders, garbage bags, and shoe covers in the appropriate areas before individual garden clubs arrive. In recent years, the TR Site has also chosen to suspend its regular public tour schedule while decorating takes place. This has alleviated pressure on several fronts and also helps by making additional staff resources available to focus on Decorating Days.

Morning room at Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, decorated with the help of the Orchard Park Garden Club, 2014. (Image courtesy of Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.)

Morning room at Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, decorated with the help of the Orchard Park Garden Club, 2014. (Image courtesy of Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site.)

Holiday decorations remain in place at the TR Site throughout the month of December and garden clubs are also responsible for their removal. So, while there is a huge sigh of relief when Decorating Days are over, it is important that I stay in touch with the garden clubs. A few days before “actual” Christmas, I send each club a quick e-mail. My note serves to express effusive thanks for all of their hard work, and also remind them about the “De-Decorating” schedule (usually January 2nd, 3rd, or 4th). As with decorating, the clubs are asked to let me know when they will arrive to remove decorations. While the de-decorating process tends to be much quicker and involves far fewer members of each garden club, there is considerable clean-up that needs to be done afterwards and it takes several days to get everything back to “normal” at the TR Site. At that point, Victorian Christmas is officially over and staff can take a short break, before the process begins all over again in February!

My tenure at the Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site has spanned all or part of fifteen Victorian Christmases. The process of decorating can vary greatly from year to year, but it seems to work best when communication is open, on-going, and consistent. Further, I cannot overstate the advantages of organization and pre-planning. When present, these factors go a long way in mitigating many of the stressors associated with holiday displays and events at historic sites.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Curator’s Role in Crowd-Pleasing Events, Part 2: Philosophy and Research

We hope that you found our previous post about resource protection during holiday events helpful and informative.  (See “The Curator’s Role in Crowd-Pleasing Events, Part 1.”)  The second installment of this holiday series is presented by Gregory R. Weidman, Curator of Hampton National Historic Site and Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine.  This post emphasizes the importance of maintaining historical accuracy and site relevancy at your historic house museum during the holiday season.  

[The following post written by Gregory R. Weidman]

Attracting visitors to our sites is always important, and the public loves traditional holiday displays and events. However, it is essential to balance this with staying true to our institution’s mission. We have an obligation to do more than just entertain the public, to merely show them a house festively decorated. In creating holiday exhibits we should strive to be:

  • Historically accurate, but even beyond that . . .
  • Authentic to the particular site, its inhabitants, and its locale
  • Educational and informative in an interesting way that engages the public

Research and investigation underpin each of these goals.

Presenting Historically Accurate Holiday Exhibits

 Despite your own fond memories from childhood, a big Christmas tree with bubble lights is obviously not appropriate if your historic house dates from the Colonial Era! In order to accurately recreate a typical American Christmas celebration in the past you must educate yourself about the general history of holiday celebrations in America. (Some sites may highlight other holidays depending on their related histories). Fortunately, there are lots of sources from which to learn.

If your historic house is interpreted primarily to the early Federal era, it is best to eschew the traditional Christmas tree entirely, unless the site is part of a Germanic community. In a later Victorian Era setting, a tree surrounded by gifts may be appropriate. The “devil is in the details,” however, so care must be taken in selecting individual elements of the display. The tree would not have electric lights but candles; the ornaments would likely have featured dolls, toys, musical instruments, flags, cornucopias, and baskets of treats in addition to a few glass ornaments; most gifts of toys for the children would have been left unwrapped; and those that were would have been in plain brown paper or tissue with fabric ribbon since holiday gift wrapping paper as we know it today was not invented until the World War I era. You might even consider putting a smaller tree on a table, as shown in many illustrations of Christmas settings in the 1850-1900 period, rather than using a tall tree.

Thomas Nast, "Christmas 1863," Harper's Weekly, December 26, 1863. Note gifts under the table-top Christmas tree and stockings hung on the mantel.(Image source:

Thomas Nast, “Christmas 1863,” Harper’s Weekly, December 26, 1863. Note gifts under the table-top Christmas tree and stockings hung on the mantel. (Image source:

Being Authentic to Your Specific Site, the People, and Its Locale

 Even though a tradition may be accurate to the time period your site interprets, you should also ask: What do you actually know about the individuals related to your site? Do you know how they celebrated or even if they celebrated a particular holiday? Bringing together as much information as possible from documentary sources related to your site and its inhabitants is key in this effort. Also consider the particular characteristics of your region (cultural, climatological) that could impact what you select to display. For example, be sure the greens are appropriate both to the time period (avoid variegated holly in early settings) and region (e.g., no Magnolia grandiflora in Maine!).

Hampton National Historic Site (NHS), interpreted to varying periods of occupancy from 1790-1910, provides several examples to illuminate these points. The site preserves 62 acres in Baltimore County, Maryland, that were part of a once-vast agricultural, industrial, and commercial empire owned by seven generations of the Ridgely family. Hampton is lucky to have thousands of objects original to the site as well as vast archival collections which document all aspects of life on the estate.

The Parlour interprets the earliest period of occupancy (1790-1810). A Christmas tree would be inappropriate at this early date so we have chosen to show a fashionable Federal-era evening tea party. At this time, the mistress of the estate was an ardent Methodist, known for her piety and plain dress, thus we selected a less “spirited” type of gathering. For decorating, we selected locally abundant holly which we use sparingly, as would suit the time period and the mistress’ preference for things kept simple. Holly is probably the most frequently depicted evergreen in the pictorial sources from this era. Traditionally, it was used in vases and containers of all kinds, very frequently on mantels, and to deck picture frames and looking glasses. The use of holly in the English tradition is very old: a sixteenth century poem advises, “Get Iuye [ivy] and hull [holly], woman deck up thyne house.”1 Faux foods appropriate to an evening collation of the era, such as a festive “hedgehog cake,” complete the low-key setting.

View of the Drawing Room at Hampton NHS during Yuletide installation set up to depict the presentation of gifts to the enslaved children, ca. 1850. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

View of the Drawing Room at Hampton NHS during Yuletide installation set up to depict the presentation of gifts to the enslaved children, ca. 1850. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

“CHRISTMAS GIFTS of the Colored Children of Hampton, Given by E. Ridgely,” 1841-1854, written by Eliza Ridgely (1828-1894), HAMP 14733, MS. 001, Ridgely Family Papers, Hampton NHS, Towson, MD. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

“CHRISTMAS GIFTS of the Colored Children of Hampton, Given by E. Ridgely,” 1841-1854, written by Eliza Ridgely (1828-1894), HAMP 14733, MS. 001, Ridgely Family Papers, Hampton NHS, Towson, MD. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

In the Drawing Room (1840-1860) we interpret the pre-Civil War era. Because illuminating the lives of everyone who lived and labored at Hampton is crucial, it is particularly important to focus on the estate’s numerous enslaved individuals within the mansion as well as on the farm and slave quarters, a goal that could be hard to achieve in a holiday-themed setting. Fortunately, the survival of a remarkable document in Hampton’s archives has allowed us to bring this story to life. Eliza “Didy” Ridgely (1828-1894), a teenage daughter, recorded “CHRISTMAS GIFTS of the Colored Children of Hampton, Given by E. Ridgely,” a lengthy list enumerating the names of over fifty enslaved children and the specific gifts they were given each year from 1841-1854.2 The gift list (a scanned copy is on view; click for a larger image) records items such as dolls, doll furniture, toy animals, musical instruments, and toy soldiers, which we have used as a guide in displaying both antique and reproduction toys.

Hampton is able to display in the Drawing Room a plant that would not be accurate for most other mid-19th century American houses. Hampton’s mistress at this time, Eliza Eichelberger Ridgely (1803-1867), was a noted horticulturist who often introduced unusual and exotic plants to the estate’s gardens and greenhouses. Eliza’s account book records her purchase of “Eurphorbia Poinsettia” on December 15, 1848.3 The plant had only been introduced from Mexico to the United States twenty years earlier by U.S. diplomat Joel Roberts Poinsett, and was not in widespread use as a holiday decoration until the 20th century. In addition to the faux poinsettias, roses are featured in an arrangement on the center table, permissible in December since there was a “Rose House” among Hampton’s 19th century greenhouses.

The most traditional type of holiday display at Hampton is the Music Room (1870-1890). Oral history from family members informs our placement of the tree in the southwest corner of this room. Although decorated trees did not become commonplace in American homes until after the Civil War, we now know from a diary of Helen Stewart Ridgely’s (1854-1929) grandmother that her family had a tree in their Baltimore townhouse as early as 1861.4 In addition to toys placed around and a few wrapped gifts, the display features books the Ridgely children regularly received for Christmas, many of which have survived in the collection. This reflects the very popular 19th century custom of books published specifically to be holiday gifts. Illustrated children’s books sometimes feature Christmas trees with candles or other holiday scenes on their covers and inside, contributing useful visual documentation. By this later 19th century period, the holiday greenery in American homes had become much more profuse, with rooms literally swathed in garlands and swags. Ivy was one of the most popular plants of the era, so garlands are entwined around light fixtures, over mantels, and across table tops in the Music Room.

Left: Cover of Holly Berries by Ida Waugh (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1881). HAMP 7640, Hampton NHS. This period book cover is one of the many depictions of holly during the 19th Century. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.) Right: "Christmas Morning," Holly Berries by Ida Waugh (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1881). HAMP 7640, Hampton NHS. The details of Christmas stockings are useful for furnishing a period holiday installation. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

Left: Cover of Holly Berries by Ida Waugh (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1881). HAMP 7640, Hampton NHS. This period book cover is one of the many depictions of holly during the 19th Century. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)
Right: “Christmas Morning,” Holly Berries by Ida Waugh (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1881). HAMP 7640, Hampton NHS. The details of Christmas stockings are useful for furnishing a period holiday installation. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

Once you have determined your period of interpretation and philosophical approach to holiday decorating, it is a good idea to document it in files or a written report for the benefit of current and future staff and volunteers. The curators at the National Park Service’s Roosevelt-Vanderbilt Sites have been writing holiday furnishings plans for the houses they manage. Following Roosevelt family traditions and customs, which are very well documented, they do not embellish at the home of Franklin Delano Roosevelt because it focuses on the war years when the family only arrived from Washington a few days before the holiday. At Eleanor Roosevelt’s cottage retreat Val-Kill, however, holiday decorating is much more elaborate because she “decked the place out” historically.

Respecting the accurate holiday traditions of your site may lead to an uncommon decision—not decorating at all. When there is little or no historical evidence to support the interpretation of a holiday or special event, it may be best to either not start or stop interpreting it. For example, Theodore Roosevelt’s family rarely celebrated Christmas at Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, NY, so the park curator stopped the Christmas decorating and associated interpretive programs some years ago.


 There are many sources of good information on which to base your exhibits.

Primary Sources – These are very important, especially if site related. These include:

  • Original documents (e.g., account books, diaries, letters, scrapbooks, etc.)
  • Newspapers and magazines (e.g., Godey’s Lady’s Book, Frank Leslie’s Weekly, local newspapers from the historic period)
  • Gift books and children’s books of the period
  • Period cookbooks and housekeeping guides, such as The House Servant’s Directory by Robert Roberts (available in reprint)
  • Oral histories
  • Historic photographs in local archives (historical societies, libraries, newspapers)
Cover of We Young Folk: Original Stories for Boys and Girls (Boston: D. Lothrop & Co., 1886).  HAMP 3863, Hampton NHS. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

Cover of We Young Folk: Original Stories for Boys and Girls (Boston: D. Lothrop & Co., 1886). HAMP 3863, Hampton NHS. (Image courtesy of Hampton NHS.)

Secondary Sources – Books on subjects such as the history of Christmas and other holiday celebrations (such as Inventing Christmas by Jock Elliott and The Battle for Christmas by Stephen Nissenbaum) are very informative. Books on related topics such as table settings (Louise Belden’s The Festive Tradition), historic foodways, and historic interiors can also provide useful information, especially if they are illustrated with images of period interiors. Books aimed at collectors of particular items, such as Christmas ornaments, are also helpful. Specialized libraries such as the Winterthur Museum’s also are excellent resources for this type of research.

Internet – Although one must always use care, the internet can be a good preliminary source for the general history of certain holiday traditions such as Christmas trees and gift wrap. More importantly, it is an excellent source for products such as faux food and faux greens. Please bear in mind that it is important to do your historic research first to be familiar with the type of items you are looking for. Also, most purveyors of faux foods are primarily focused on selling to the movie and TV industry, so you need to beware of ordering modern items like spiral sliced hams or over-stuffed poultry! Fortunately, there are a few purveyors who target the historic house museum market.

Impact on Scope of Collection Statement

Unless they are rare or expensive period objects, decorations purchased for holiday displays most likely should not enter the museum collection. Instead they should be managed as props and stored separately from the collection. Eisenhower National Historic Site‘s Scope of Collection Statement contains the following paragraph summarizing this philosophy nicely:

The [park] maintains a collection of reproduction Christmas decorations. These are used each December to decorate the Eisenhower home in the same fashion as the Eisenhowers did. . . . These reproduction Christmas decorations, however, are not accessioned into the museum collection. They are considered to be ‘exhibit props’ since they are only exhibited for four weeks a year, are relatively easy to replace, and are not worth the time and expense to curate, considering the current extent of backlog work for original objects.5

Managing holiday decorations outside the museum collection also facilitates discarding and replacing reproduction objects when they become worn and no longer presentable for exhibit.

Being Educational and Informative to Enhance Interpretive Value

 Holiday displays should always support the site’s interpretive mission. Holidays are actually an ideal opportunity to educate the public since most people don’t know a great deal about the actual history of holiday celebrations. Exhibits such as Hampton’s Drawing Room are probably an unexpected holiday theme for most of the public, but is a great interpretive opportunity. Holiday displays can also dispel misconceptions and commonplace historical inaccuracies, such as lavish “della Robbia” style wreaths laden with fruit hanging on a Colonial era doorway. You can show the authentic scene and then tell visitors why it may look different than what they expected to satisfy both visitors’ interest in holiday decorations and your institution’s educational mission.


1 Libbey Hodges Oliver and Mary Miley Theobald, Williamsburg Christmas:  The Story of Christmas Decoration in the Colonial Capital  (New York:  Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p. 31.

2 “CHRISTMAS GIFTS of the Colored Children of Hampton, Given by E. Ridgely,” 1841-1854, HAMP 14733, MS. 001, Ridgely Family Papers, Hampton NHS, Towson, MD.

3 Eliza Ridgely’s Account Book, 1845-1851, HAMP 16583, MS. 001, Ridgely Family Papers, Hampton NHS, Towson, MD.

4 Pocket diary of Leonice M.S. Moulton, 1861, HAMP 40005, Ridgely Family Papers, Hampton NHS, Towson, MD.

5 Michael Florer, Scope of Collection Statement:  Eisenhower National Historic Site  (Gettysburg, PA:  Eisenhower National Historic Site, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, 2011), p. 11.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Curator’s Role in Crowd-Pleasing Events, Part 1: Resource Protection

Each season brings different challenges for curatorial staff at historic house museumsIn the summer, we battle high temperatures and relative humidity, pests, and increased visitation.  In the winter, we deal with cold temperatures and low relative humidity, as well as the pressing question:  what is the best way to decorate your historic house museum for the holidays without jeopardizing the preservation of the house and its contents?    

 Throughout the next couple of weeks, NMSC will present a series of blog posts that tackle this very issue.  In the first post offered here, NMSC Senior Curator Laurel Racine discusses resource protection during holiday events.  We hope that you will find these posts helpful as you strive to balance visitor experience with preservation this holiday season!

[The following post written by Laurel Racine]

Who doesn’t love a festively decorated house complete with food, music, and entertainment thrown wide to the neighborhood?  Of course we all do . . . except maybe when it’s your historic house museum filled with irreplaceable site-associated art and history objects preserved from four generations of the family??

I chat regularly with curators from 80 national parks from Maine to Virginia. I heard often enough about the challenges of planning for holiday events that I created a “Holiday Historic House” information-sharing and support group.  At first we tried to pull back from the holiday theme, but found the main focus in the Northeast Region is truly holiday decorating, most often for Christmas.

Holiday tourism of historic houses is wildly popular as people seek wholesome, family-friendly events during the Christmas season. A well-decorated historic house can connect with people through all their senses and teach them about the past as they enjoy the season’s sights and sounds. While some curators have valid arguments against decorating for the holidays, others have no choice and decorating is a requirement. Then lights, food, music, and entertainment are the natural extensions of the holiday celebration sometimes leading historic sites to relax their policies to further promote the festive feel of the events.

So the challenge for historic house museum staff is to remain focused on the mission, resource protection, and accuracy among all the fun, goodwill, and festivity of holiday events.  Below are some practical thoughts and tips for keeping museum collections and visitors safe.  Future posts will address accuracy, logistics, and revamping a holiday program.


The Lyman Estate in the snow, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2010-2011.  Historic New England property.

The Lyman Estate, Waltham, MA.  Historic New England property.  Image:

  •  Plan ahead for storms because you might need to clear snow and treat ice for visitor safety.
  • Assess exterior and interior lighting to ensure there is adequate illumination for safe access and security of the building after dark.
  • Consider installing a temporary weather vestibule to mitigate the effects of a frequently opening door.
  • Use door mats and floor runners, when safe, to protect floors and rugs from tracked-in snow, gravel, and mud.

Visitor Flow

Tour in Shriver House Museum, Gettysburg, PA.  Image:

Tour in Shriver House Museum, Gettysburg, PA. Image:

  • Manage the number of visitors who can safely and securely be in the building at one time for a quality visitor experience and object safety.
  • Consider floor load, means of egress, visitor proximity to sensitive objects (including wallpaper), size of the smallest space visitors occupy, and sight lines for monitoring visitors.
  • Provide timed tickets or additional entertainment outside the decorated house to alleviate long lines of cold, unhappy people on the doorstep.

Objects at Risk

Staff decorating at Weber County Heritage Foundation, Ogdon, UT.  Image:

Staff carefully decorating at Weber County Heritage Foundation, Ogden, UT. Image:

  • Remember that objects on open display are at heightened risk, especially during the unusual circumstances and increased visitation of holiday events.
  • Move small or fragile objects farther from the visitor path or off exhibit in anticipation of more people in the building.
  • Record any objects moved for safety or to make way for holiday decorations so they do not get lost or misplaced. Photographs can help in replacing objects later.
  • Allow only people trained in object handling to move collection objects in advance of decorators.
  • Make clear that decorators are not to apply any decorations to the building or furnishings with adhesives, nails, or wire.
  • Place Mylar under greens and other decorations to avoid scratching surfaces.


  • Replace burning candles with authentic-looking electric candles.
  • Avoid lighting fires in disused fireplaces because old chimney flues can contain creosote or a crack allowing sparks to contact wood and start a fire.
  • Ensure decorations are made only from fire-retardant materials.
  • Avoid using space heaters.

Pests and Stains

5.  Gov's Refreshments

Realistic artificial food displayed on table at Governor’s Palace, Colonial Williamsburg. Image:  christmas/dec_wmsbgstyle.cfm

  • Serve visitor refreshments only in an ancillary structure to avoid staining and attracting pests.
  • Designate a space for decorators to eat (if needed) and remove food waste as soon as possible.
  • Use realistic artificial food as decorations instead of real fruit, candy, cookies, or nuts.
  • Avoid or actively manage the use of fresh or live plants and flowers in the house.
    • Inspect plants as they arrive for signs of pests or potential to stain.
    • Use only fresh greens (if not using artificial) to minimize falling needles.
    • Cover floors with drop cloths when moving decorations to catch plant material before it drops on rugs or carpets.
    • Place Mylar under floral arrangements to avoid scratching and dampening furniture.

Planning for a holiday event might sound (or feel) like preparing for the seven plagues:  inclement weather, crowds of visitors, broken objects, lost objects, fire, stains, and pest infestations but once the policies are in place and everyone is trained (including management!) it might be possible to enjoy the event as much as the visitors do.


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

What’s On Your Thanksgiving Table? Why Some Vessel Types No Longer Make the Cut

“Setting the table” in my busy home usually entails some plates, glasses, forks, and – if we’re lucky – paper napkins.  (In a pinch, paper towels do the job just fine.)  Holidays like Thanksgiving, however, call for a little more fanfare on the table.  I get out the large platter for the turkey, the fine china, and the gravy boat.  I set out dinner plates, salad plates, and dessert plates.  I fill food into pretty serving dishes that hardly see the light of day any other time of year.  After the meal has been eaten and the dishes washed, most of these special pieces go back into my cabinets until the next holiday rolls around.

Thanksgiving dinner scene, ca. 1873.  Public domain image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Thanksgiving dinner scene, ca. 1873. Public domain image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

I presume that most modern American families are like mine in that they make use of the same basic tableware on a daily basis:  cups, bowls, plates, silverware.  I’m sure that you, the reader, are familiar with these staples of the dinner table.  Despite their less frequent use, you are also undoubtedly familiar with the platter, gravy boat, and dessert plate. What about, on the other hand, the twiffler?

Here in the NMSC archeology lab, I have been busy cataloging a collection of artifacts that includes several twifflers.  The collection was excavated from an upper middle class house site in Lowell, Massachusetts that dates to about 1845, and is full of ca. 1830s and 1840s ceramics.  Almost every provenience contains pearlware and whiteware tablewares and teawares, with decorative techniques ranging from transfer-printed designs, to hand-painted floral motifs, to cabled, marbled, and dendritic slipped designs.

Array of ca. 1830s-1840s ceramic sherds from NPS archeological collection.  (NMSC photo)

Array of ca. 1830s-1840s ceramic sherds from Lowell National Historical Park archeological collection. (NMSC photo)

The quantity and variety of ceramic vessels excavated from this site illustrate the increasing importance in the early Victorian era of owning and showing off a proper and fashionable array of dishes.  In the mid-nineteenth century, a proper lady owned the right dish for every element of food and drink.  This collection contains several shell-edged and transfer-printed twifflers, which were actually ubiquitous in 19th-century households.  As historian Robert Mazrim notes, “During the early 19th century, English potters manufactured four principal sizes of plates:  table, supper, twiffler, and muffin.”  (p. 162)  Twifflers were a size down from a dinner plate (about 8 to 9 inches in diameter), while muffins were smaller, equivalent to what we might call a side plate.

Transfer-printed pearlware twiffler, ca. 1820.  (Image source:

Transfer-printed pearlware twiffler, ca. 1820. (Image source:

It turns out that the archeological record is full of vessel types that are unused and largely unheard of today.  Some were made obsolete by technological improvements, others by changes in the availability and consumption of specific foods, and still others by changes in the way we eat and entertain in our homes.

Perhaps one of the most recognizable obsolete ceramic vessels is the chamber pot.  Although it’s not something that was ever used on the dining table, it’s a great example of a vessel form made unnecessary by technological innovation.  It’s not hard to understand why people stopped using chamber pots.  Once you got indoor plumbing, you didn’t really need your chamber pot anymore.  Although they were a lovely shape and were often decorated with colorful – even downright funny!  – designs or images, I venture to guess that most people were eager to abandon them for flushing toilets.

Early 19th-century chamber pot.  (Image source:

Early 19th-century chamber pot. (Image source:

The saltcellar is another vessel type that passed out of popular use because of technology.  A saltcellar is a dish used for dispensing salt at the table.  In use since Roman times, saltcellars were made of ceramic, glass, metal, and even wood.  Salt was taken from the cellar with small spoons.  Saltcellars became commonplace by the early 19th century, with pressed glass varieties like the Sandwich Glass example shown here extremely popular from the 1830s on.  To read more about this beautiful, patriotic-themed saltcellar, check out our earlier blog post:  Please Pass the Patriotism!  An America-inspired saltcellar from Petersburg, Virginia.  In the early 20th century, free-flowing salt became available through the addition of anti-caking agents.  Salt shakers became all the rage, and saltcellars disappeared from our tables.

Left: Fragment of pressed glass saltcellar with eagle motif from archeological collection at Petersburg National Battlefield. Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC. Right: example of complete saltcellar. (Image source:

Left: Fragment of pressed glass saltcellar with eagle motif from archeological collection at Petersburg National Battlefield. Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC. Right: example of complete saltcellar. (Image source:


Pressed glass celery vase, Boston and Sandwich Glass Co., ca. 1827-1835.  Metropolitan Museum of Art.  (Image source:

Pressed glass celery vase, Boston and Sandwich Glass Co., ca. 1827-1835. Metropolitan Museum of Art. (Image source:

Many 19th-century pressed or cut glass services included a celery vase.  Although you may not think much of celery today, in the 19th century, it was a delicacy.  Growing celery was extremely labor-intensive, and celery was therefore expensive and not widely available.  As illustrated in this late 19th-century advertisement for tomato soup, when celery was purchased, it was not chopped into a recipe, but rather set on the table in a fancy vase for all to see.  By the late 19th century, some glass and ceramic sets included an oblong celery dish instead of a vase.  As the 20th century progressed, improvements in agriculture and faster and easier transportation of produce allowed for the wider consumption of celery.  What was once a delicacy proudly displayed for dinner guests has become perhaps one of the most underappreciated items in the supermarket produce aisle.

Late 19th-century advertisement showing use of celery vase on dining table.  (Image source:

Late 19th-century advertisement showing use of celery vase on dining table. Image source:

These are only a few examples of vessel types that history has made largely obsolete. Others might include the porringer, the slop bowl, and the nappy.  This Thanksgiving, consider treating your guests to a little piece of history.  Instead of a vase of fresh flowers in the center of your table, why not a vase of fresh celery?  Put away your saltshaker and invite your family and friends to spoon some salt out of a saltcellar.  (I acknowledge that the chamber pot may be pushing it.)  However you decide to dress your table this Thanksgiving, we at NMSC wish you a very happy one!


Husfloen, Kyle.  Collector’s Guide to American Pressed Glass 1825-1915.  Radnor, PA:  Wallace-Homestead Book Company, 1992.

Mazrim, Robert.  The Sangamo Frontier.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Posted in A bit of History, Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Thank you, Meredith!

Over the past six months, NMSC has been privileged to have two amazing seasonal employees on staff in the archeology lab.  It is with heavy hearts that we wish them well as their terms draw to a close.  Here, one of these employees, Meredith Luze, reflects upon her time at NMSC.  Meredith, a graduate student at U Mass Boston, is in the process of finishing her master’s thesis on living history museums’ use of archeological collections.  Meredith, we cannot thank you enough for all of your hard work and good cheer!

[The Following Post Written by Meredith Luze]

Prior to seeing an advertisement for the museum technician position at the Northeast Museum Services Center, I had no knowledge of the NMSC’s existence, let alone the role it plays in caring for artifacts at national parks from around the Northeast region. The job sounded right up my alley with my previous experience working with both archeological and museum collections, so I applied and spent several anxious weeks waiting to see if the interest was mutual. Thankfully the waiting ended with an interview and a job offer, which I could not have been more thrilled to accept.

Shortly after arriving at the NMSC, I learned that I was going to be cataloging artifacts from two rather different sites at two national parks, Petersburg National Battlefield (PETE) and Lowell National Historical Park (LOWE).  As I jumped into using the National Park Service’s complex cataloging system, the rest of the NMSC’s archeology staff patiently answered my questions and confusion as I learned proper NPS cataloging terminology and object ordering. I had not expected artifact cataloging, something I had extensive experience doing elsewhere, to require so much training! But learn the system I did, first sorting and cataloging artifacts from a site at PETE that had suffered varying levels of heat alteration from a historic warehouse fire.

Meredith and NMSC's Alicia Paresi sorting burned ceramics from the Waterfront collection at PETE.  (NMSC photo)

Meredith and NMSC’s Alicia Paresi sort burned ceramics from an archeological collection at PETE. (NMSC photo)

While I now have little desire to see any more sherds of burned redware, I enjoyed finding unique pieces in the PETE collection, including a mysterious metal object that after a little researching turned out to be an umbrella tip. My favorite artifacts from the collection were a set of dominoes, including a miniature domino, which had shattered and turned into a fun puzzle to reassemble.

Domino and umbrella tip from Waterfront collection.  (Photos by Norm Eggert for NMSC.)

Domino and umbrella tip from PETE collection. (Photos by Norm Eggert for NMSC.)

After the PETE collection had been safely returned to the park, we immediately began work on the LOWE collection from the Boott Mill Boarding House, which NMSC staff had painstakingly sorted and prepared for cataloging earlier in the fiscal year. It was a huge thrill to work with a collection I had long heard about and discussed, and the collection taught me a far more about glass forms and types than I ever knew was possible. I was even able to join the NMSC on several trips to the Boott Mill for collections pick-ups, artifact conservation, and a memorable few days screening soil samples. Outside of the lab, I had the opportunity to visit Adams National Historical Park and Minute Man National Historical Park with other NMSC staff, both of which were new additions to my list of visited national parks. I also had the privilege of working with African Burial Ground National Monument’s collection, another collection I studied extensively in my undergraduate and graduate classes and was excited to work with in person.

Meredith hard at work screening soil samples from Cape Cod National Seashore.  (Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC.)

Meredith hard at work screening soil samples from Cape Cod National Seashore. (Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC.)


I could not have asked for better colleagues than I found at the NMSC. They were all unfailingly encouraging and supportive as I attempted to balance working full-time with completing my master’s thesis, alternately sharing their own thesis stories and motivating me with more candy than adults have any business eating. I benefited enormously from their extensive material culture knowledge as well as their interesting tastes in podcasts like Welcome to Nightvale, which was a source of endless entertainment while cataloging. At the NMSC I gained a deeper appreciation for those archeologists who routinely work with aging archeological collections and are tasked with making sense of excavation and cataloging notes decades later. After six months with the NMSC, I have a better understanding of the enormity of what the National Park Service is tasked with in caring for its invaluable collections and how collaboration and cooperation between parks makes accomplishing this task possible.

I am very glad that I now not only know about the NMSC but have been able to work there cataloging several memorable collections, screening old soil samples, and assisting with collection returns. The end of my term is a bittersweet goodbye to the NMSC, but I hope to work with the staff here again in the future.

Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC.

NMSC photo.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Happy New (Fiscal) Year from the NMSC Archeology Lab!

September is upon us.  Kids are back in school, leaves are starting to change, pumpkin spice has returned as the flavor of choice for many coffee drinkers and muffin fans.  For the National Park Service, September also means the close of the fiscal year.  As the year draws to a close, we here in the NMSC archeology lab wrap up the projects we have been working on since last fall and prepare for the start of a new year.

Fall at Longfellow House - Washington's Headquarters NHS (photo courtesy of NPS Digital Image Archives)

Fall at Longfellow House – Washington’s Headquarters NHS (photo courtesy of NPS Digital Image Archives)

We often post about interesting artifacts we come across while processing archeological collections.  This time, we thought we might offer our readers a look into the process of… well, processing.  Field work – digging – is one part of archeology.  The lab work that follows is equally important and transforms bags of ceramics, glass, metal, and bone into a coherent collection that can be accessed and understood by park staff and public researchers.  Have you ever wondered what goes on in an archeology lab?  If so, this post is for you!

Before we begin work on a park’s archeology collection, NMSC staff meets with park staff to discuss the project in detail and survey the materials slated for processing.  We work with park historians, curators, archeologists, and archivists to ensure that we understand the scope of the collection, and also to ensure that we have all components of the collection – including associated documentation like site maps and field notes – before we begin processing.  Field notes and other documentation produced during an excavation are integral parts of an archeological collection, and NPS protocol mandates that they are processed with the related artifacts.

NMSC archeologist conferring with park staff during collection pickup.  (NMSC photo)

NMSC archeologist conferring with park staff prior to processing. (NMSC photo)

Our first step in processing a collection is always a thorough examination of the site maps, field notes, and other documentation associated with the excavation in question.  These materials provide us with the information we need to properly organize the collection. According to NPS standards for processing, archeological collections must be organized, if at all possible, by provenience (location within a site).  Context is key to understanding the artifacts from a site and how they relate to each other and the history of the site.  Once a collection has been properly cataloged, the information it contains can be organized in any way that suits a particular research query.  Organization for the sake of cataloging, however, should be by provenience.  We use associated documentation to create a list of proveniences, then move on to a systematic survey of the artifacts themselves before we begin to organize the collection.

If we do not have field notes, sometimes we can obtain provenience information from original field bags.  Other times, however, the task of discerning provenience can be tricky. The artifacts, for example, may already have been processed by a different lab’s protocol, and it is up to us to decode their numbering or ordering system.  Or, the collection may have been organized by material type for research purposes, and we are tasked with rearranging the artifacts by provenience.

Sorting an archeological collection by provenience is a time-consuming, painstaking, and essential process.  In most collections, there are several test units represented, and several strata or layers represented within each unit.  Every single artifact must be checked and added to the appropriate sorting bin or tray.

Sorting by provenience in progress.  (NMSC photo)

Sorting by provenience in progress. (NMSC photo)

Once a collection has been surveyed and organized and a provenience list has been created, artifacts are washed.  Even collections that were washed following excavation are often in need of additional cleaning, especially if they have been subject to inadequate storage conditions.

Washing archeological artifacts.  (NMSC photo)

Washing archeological artifacts. (NMSC photo)

Once we have an organized, clean collection of artifacts, the cataloging begins.  When we catalog an artifact, we identify its type, function, and decorative techniques.   Archeological artifacts are often only fragments of an object, and have often deteriorated beyond the point of immediate recognition.  The cataloging process allows us to take artifacts whose form or function may not be universally apparent, and assign them identification and historical context.  Cataloging allows these artifacts to have tangible, comprehensible classifications that everyone can understand.

Presentation slide illustrating artifacts placed in context.  (NMSC image)

Presentation slide illustrating artifacts placed in context. (NMSC image)

We create digital catalog records for each artifact, which are added to the park’s collections database once processing has been completed.  Cataloging allows for proper documentation of and accountability for archeological artifacts, and allows park staff and other researchers to search the collections database for different types of artifacts.

Sometimes cataloging is fairly straightforward.  Other times, we come across artifacts that require some extra research!  A type of glaze we’ve never seen before, a vessel shape we’re unfamiliar with, a curious cast iron object that we finally identify in a reference book …these artifacts constitute one of the most rewarding aspects of lab work.  We are constantly seeing new things and learning more about the people represented by these small, often fragmentary – but very important – examples of material culture.  Museum collections abound with historic objects that belonged to historical figures, or that represent the finest examples of material culture.  Archeology, on the other hand, has the potential to show us what everyday life was like.  By studying the common items that people used on a daily basis and then discarded, we can gain invaluable insight into our past.

NMSC archeologists contemplating artifacts during cataloging.  (NMSC photo)

NMSC archeologists contemplating artifacts during cataloging. (NMSC photo)

An essential component of the cataloging process is housing – or storing – the artifacts.  Our goal is to provide the parks we serve with well-organized collections that they can easily access for inventory and research purposes.  We take several steps to ensure that the association between the object and its documentation is well preserved, and that it would be apparent to someone navigating the collection for the first time.  Artifacts are labeled with their catalog numbers, and tags bearing catalog number and provenience information are inserted into each artifact bag.

NMSC archeologist labeling artifacts with catalog numbers.  (NMSC photo)

NMSC archeologist labeling artifacts with catalog numbers. (NMSC photo)

Each catalog record notes a specific location:  a designation for an individual bag within an individual box.  This system makes finding an artifact fairly straightforward and time-efficient.  The storage of artifacts in archival-quality bags, trays, and boxes also ensure the long-term preservation of the collection.

Archeological collection organized into archival-quality bags, trays, and boxes. (NMSC photo)

Archeological collection organized into archival-quality bags, trays, and boxes. (NMSC photo)

After one final spot-check of artifacts, which ensures that we have recorded the correct locations and item counts for each item, a collection is ready to be returned to its park.  It is always a rewarding moment when we are able to provide parks with clean, organized, usable collections.  Archeological artifacts can be powerful teaching tools and can be used to create fascinating and educational exhibits.  They must be properly processed, however, in order for this to happen.  We take pride in the role that we play in this process.  Working with NPS archeology collections is a privilege, and we enjoy our work here even more knowing that we help to bring the past alive for our parks and their visitors.  And so as our fiscal year draws to a close, we are eager to begin anew.  Bring on 2015!

NMSC archeology team.  (Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC)

NMSC archeology team. (Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC)

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Please Pass the Patriotism! An America-Inspired Saltcellar from Petersburg, Virginia

While vacationing in upstate New York last summer, I was privileged to see a bald eagle soaring above the Erie Canal.  Today, it is a thrill to spot a wild bald eagle, a threatened and celebrated animal in the United States.  The image of the eagle, however, is everywhere:  on the face of the quarter in your pocket, in the logo of a popular clothing brand, and most prominently, as the central feature in the official great seal of the United States of America.

After the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776, the Continental Congress appointed a committee to design a national seal for the United States.  After six years of disagreements about the design, an official seal was finally adopted in 1782 that featured a bald eagle holding thirteen arrows in one talon and an olive branch in the other.  Despite Benjamin Franklin’s preference for the turkey – he called the eagle a “bird of bad moral character” and argued that the turkey’s courage better matched the American spirit – the bald eagle became a national symbol second only to Old Glory.  (An excerpt from Benjamin Franklin’s letter to his daughter in which he expresses his opinion on the eagle and the turkey can be found in this article by Jimmy Stamp.)

Why the bald eagle?  Through their association with the Greek god Zeus and the Roman god Jupiter, eagles have historically denoted authority.  Their imposing wingspan, longevity, and strength lend eagles an air of power, and their solitary lifestyle and tendency to nest in tall treetops or on clifftops bespeak independence and self-sufficiency.  Also, early Americans saw the predatory nature of the eagle as a fitting representation of America’s rising military and economic power.  Finally, one major reason for the selection of the bald eagle as a symbol for America is the fact that, as Elizabeth Atwood Lawrence states in her article Symbol of a Nation:  the Bald Eagle in American Culture, “of the fifty-eight species of eagles worldwide, the bald eagle is the only one virtually unique to North America.”

Bald eagle in flight, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Bald eagle in flight, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

In 1783, the Treaty of Paris recognized the United States as a sovereign nation.  From this point on, American decorative arts proudly displayed the bald eagle as a symbol of their hard-earned freedom.  Eagles are featured prominently in early 19th-century American furniture, artwork, glass, and ceramics.

Girandole with eagle finial, in collection at Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Image source:

Girandole with eagle finial, ca. 1817, in collection at Metropolitan Museum of Art.        Image source:


Surprisingly, even the Staffordshire potters in England produced ceramic wares displaying the new nation’s most popular patriotic symbols.  Beautiful examples of such vessels in Winterthur’s collection can be viewed in the book Success to America:  Creamware for the American Market.  The authors note that “eagles, flags, and patriotic slogans were among the most popular emblems to appear on ceramics made specifically for the American market.”  (page 232)

Creamware jug from Winterthur collection.  Produced in England ca. 1793-1795.  Image source:  "Success to America:  Creamware for the American Market."  Page 231.

Creamware jug from Winterthur collection. Produced in England ca. 1793-1795. Image source: “Success to America: Creamware for the American Market” page 231.

Wineglass with engraved American flag motif, ca. 1815-1815.  Winterthur collection.  Image source:  "Glass in Early America."  Page 78.

Wineglass with engraved American flag motif, ca. 1815-1815. Winterthur collection. Image source: “Glass in Early America” page 78.

Winterthur’s museum collection includes many objects that display the American eagle and other patriotic symbols.  As Arlene Palmer explains in Glass in Early America, Henry Francis du Pont was “drawn to objects that bespoke the nationalistic pride of Americans after the revolutionary war.”  (page 23)  The wineglass displayed at right is a perfect example.


The majestic eagle that perches atop the Custom House at Salem Maritime National Historic Site (SAMA) is a replica of the original wooden eagle that was carved in 1826 by Salem craftsman Joseph True.  The original eagle was conserved in 2002 and is now displayed on the second floor of the Custom House.  Although the eagle’s current appearance reflects the gilding that was applied in the 1870s, she was initially painted as a bald eagle, with a brown body and white head.  See this State of the Park Report for more information on SAMA’s eagle and its conservation.


The SAMA carved eagle on display on the second floor of the Custom House.  Image source:

The SAMA carved eagle on display on the second floor of the Custom House. Image source:


Part of a glass saltcellar with an eagle motif was excavated from the kitchen at Appomattox Manor, City Point, Virginia (a unit of Petersburg National Battlefield).  Saltcellars, used for holding and dispensing salt, have been in use since Roman times and only passed out of fashion in the first half of the 20th century with the advent of free-flowing salt and salt shakers.  While researching this piece during cataloging recently, NMSC determined that the saltcellar was produced by the Sandwich Glass Company in the first half of the 19th century.  The New York Historical Society’s museum collection includes a similar saltcellar, which their website dates to ca. 1830-1840.

Left:  Fragment of pressed glass saltcellar with eagle motif from archeological collection at Petersburg National Battlefield.  Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC.  Right:  example of complete saltcellar.  Image source:

Left: Fragment of pressed glass saltcellar with eagle motif from archeological collection at Petersburg National Battlefield. Photo by Norm Eggert for NMSC. Right: example of complete saltcellar. Image source:

What pieces reflecting American pride and patriotism do you have in your museum collection? We’d love to hear from you!   And of course, Happy Independence Day from us here at the the Northeast Museum Services Center!


Lawrence, E.A. “Symbol of a Nation: The Bald Eagle in American Culture.” Journal of American Culture13 (1990), pp. 63–69.

Liebster, Amy. “Eagles After the American Revolution”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (June 2012)

Palmer, Arlene.  Glass in Early America.  Winterthur Museum, 1993.

Stamp, Jimmy.  American Myths:  Benjamin Franklin’s Turkey and the Presidential Seal., January 25, 2013.

Teitelman, S. Robert, Patricia A. Halfpenny, and Ronald W. Fuchs II.  Success to America:  Creamware for the American Market.  Woodbridge, Suffolk:  Antique Collectors Club, 2010.



Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment